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精选考研英语模拟题六

摘要:

 

模拟题六
 
Section Ⅰ Use of English
 
Directions:
 
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
 
The success of Augustus owed much to the character of Roman theorizing about the state. The Romans did not produce ambitious blueprints1 the construction of idea__l__ states, such as__2__ to the Greeks. With very few exceptions, Roman theorists ignored, or rejected__3__ valueless, intellectual exercises like Plato's Republic, in__4__ the relationship of the individual to the state was__5__ out painstakingly without reference to__6__ states or individuals. The closest the Roman came to the Greek model was Cicero's De Re Publica, and even here Cicero had Rome clearly in __7__. Roman thought about the state was concrete, even when it__8__ religious and moral concepts. The first ruler of Rome, Romulus, was__9__ to have received authority from the gods, specifically from Jupiter, the "guarantor" of Rome. All constitutional__10__was a method of conferring and administering the__11__. Very clearly it was believed that only the assembly of the__12__, the family heads who formed the original senate,__13__the religious character necessary to exercise authority, because its original function was to__14__the gods. Being practical as well as exclusive, the senators moved__15__to divide the authority, holding that their consuls, or chief officials, would possess it on__16__months, and later extending its possession to lower officials.__17__the important achievement was to create the idea of continuing__18__authority embodied only temporarily in certain upper-class individuals and conferred only__19__the mass of the people concurred. The system grew with enormous __20__, as new offices and assemblies were created and almost none discarded.
 
1.[A] with [B] for [C] in [D] to
 
2. [A] tempted [B] attracted [C] appealed [D] transferred
 
3. [A] on [B] for [C] as [D] about
 
4. [A] which [B] that [C] what [D] it
 
5. [A] turned [B] worked [C] brought [D] made
 
6. [A] special [B] specific [C] peculiar [D] particular
 
7. [A] existence [B] store [C] reality [D] mind
 
8. [A] abandoned [B] caught [C] separated [D] involved
 
9. [A] told [B] held [C] suggested [D] advised
 
10. [A] tendency [B] procedure [C] development [D] relation
 
11. [A] authority [B] power [C] control [D] ruling
 
12. [A] officers [B] men [C] administrators [D] fathers
 
13. [A] possessed [B] claimed [C] assured [D] enforced
 
14. [A] confirm [B] confer [C] consult [D] consider
 
15. [A] over [B] along [C] on [D] about
 
16. [A] alternate [B] different [C] varied [D] several
 
17. [A] And [B] So [C] Or [D] But
 
18. [A] state [B] country [C] people [D] national
 
19. [A] as [B] when [C] if [D] so
 
20. [A] dimension [B] complexity [C] exercise [D] function
 
答案
1. B 2. C 3. C 4. A 5. B 6. D 7.D 8.D 9. B 10. C
11. A 12. D 13.A 14.C 15. C 16. A 17. D 18. A 19. B 20. B
 
总体分析
 
本文介绍了罗马人有关国家建设的理论。第一句指出罗马人有关国家形成的理论很有特点。第二句至第五句指出,罗马人的理论与希腊人的大不相同,是非常具体的。第六句至文章结尾具体阐述了罗马人关于国家权力的所有和分配形式。
 
试题精解
 
1.[精解] 本题考查介词用法辨析。空格处的介词与名词短语the construction of ideal states 搭配,作blueprints 的后置定语,意为"......的蓝图"。for可表示对象、用途,意为"给,对,供"等,如a book for children(儿童读物),a new table for the dining room(用在饭厅的新桌子)。本句中,"建设理想国家"是"蓝图"的用途,因此选择介词for,[B]正确。其它介词:with和名词搭配常表示"具有......特征",如a woman with a hot temper(脾气暴躁的女人);with和动词搭配常表示"用,以,借",如Cut it with a knife.(用刀把它切开。)in表示"以,用(语言,材料等)",如He spoke in a loud voice.(他大声说话。)to表示"到,达(某种状态)",如He tore the letter to pieces.(他把信撕碎了。)
 
2.[精解] 本题考查动词用法辨析。空格所在部分such as__2 __to the Greeks是一个定语从句,其中as为关系代词,指代先行词blueprints。因此,该从句的主语是as指代的blueprints,谓语是空格处填入的动词。该动词是个不及物动词,与后面的介词to搭配。符合要求的只有[C]appeal,它常和介词to搭配,意为"(对某人)有吸引力,引起(某人的)兴趣",如Do these paintings appeal to you?(你对这些画感兴趣吗?)
 
其它项的动词都是及物动词:tempt sb. to do sth.意为"诱惑、吸引(某人做某事)",其中to为不定式符号,如Nothing would tempt me to live here.(什么也吸引不了我在这里居住。)attract sb. to sth. 意为"引起某人对某事的好感或喜爱",如What attracted me to the job was its challenges.(这份工作吸引我的是它的挑战性。)transfer sb./sth. to... 意为"使转移,搬迁",如transfer money to his account(将钱转到他的帐户上)。
 
补充:such... as意为"像......这样的",其中as可作关系代词,引起定语从句,如The article provided such information as was not provided by most of the newspapers in the United States.(这篇文章提供了美国大部分报纸没有提供的信息。)such有时不放在所修饰的词前,而和as放在一起,如上面例句也可写成:The article provided information such as was not provided by most of the newspapers in the United States.
 
3.[精解] 本题考查句子结构及介词用法。空格所在句子中出现了倒装结构,由于其宾语intellectual exercises的后置定语较长,因此将宾补valueless提前。该句子的正常语序是Roman theorists ignored, or rejected intellectual exercises__3__valueless。能够引出宾补的介词只有[C]as,如I respect him as a doctor.(我尊敬他这个医生。)You can use that glass as a vase.(你可以把那个玻璃杯当作花瓶用。)
 
4.[精解] 本题考查从句的引导词。空格上下文分别是两个结构完整的分句,无法仅仅用逗号连接。由此可知,空格所在部分是in __4__引导的非限定性从句,修饰先行词Plato's Republic,in 4在该从句中作状语。能够指代名词,并和介词搭配的关系代词是[A]which。[B]that不用在非限定性从句中,[C]what只能引导名词性从句,[D]it不能引导从句。
 
5.[精解] 本题考查短语动词辨析。空格所在部分was__5__out是定语从句中的谓语,由于它是被动式,因此其逻辑宾语就是该从句的主语the relationship。turn out意为"制造,生产;关掉,熄灭",如turn out 900 cars a week(一周生产900辆汽车),turn out the lights(关灯)。work out意为"计算,算出;处理,解决;计划,思考",如work out the answer/a problem/a new way(计算出答案/解决问题/制定出新方案)。bring out意为"使显现,使表现出;生产,出版";如A crisis brings out the best in her.(危机促使她表现得特别出色。)The band have just brought out the second album.(这个乐队刚刚推出了他们的第二张专辑。)。make out意为"辨认;理解,明白",如make out a figure in the darkness(在黑暗中看出一个人的轮廓),make out what she was saying(弄明白她在说些什么)。根据句意,应该选[B],work out the relationship表示"想出或制定出(个人与国家之间的)关系"。
 
6.[精解] 本题考查近义形容词辨析。选项中四个形容词为近义词。special意为"特别的,专门的",如special treatment(特殊照顾)。specific意为"特殊的;明确的",如There is a specific tool for each job.(每个工种都配备特定的工具。)specific instructions(明确的指示)。peculiar意为"奇怪的;独特的",如The food has a peculiar taste.(这食物有种怪味道。)The Mid-Autumn Festival is peculiar to China.(中秋节是中国所独有的。)particular意为"不寻常的,特别的",如particular attention(特别注意)。但是particular也可意为"专指的,特指的",这种用法的particular只用在名词前作定语,与泛指相对,如Is there a particular type of book he enjoys?(他特别喜爱哪一类书籍吗?)由句意可知,空格处填入的形容词修饰states or individuals,表示"特指的国家或个人",与上文提到的"泛指的国家或个人"相对。因此应选[D]。
 
7.[精解] 本题考查固定搭配。have sb./sth. in mind意为"心中有适当的人(或事情)等",如Watching TV all evening wasn't exactly what I had in mind!(我才不愿整个晚上都看电视!)空格所在部分表达的含义是"对罗马有了非常清楚的想法",因此应选[D]mind。
 
其它项都可以和介词in搭配:in store意为"即将发生(在某人身上),等待着(某人)",如They think it'll be easy but they have a surprise in store.(他们以为事情容易,到时候他们就会吃惊的。)in existence意为"现存",如This is the oldest Hebrew manuscript in existence.(这是现存最古老的希伯来语手稿。)in reality意为"实际上,事实上",如She seemed confident but in reality she felt nervous.(她看起来自信,而实际上很紧张。)显然,其它项都不符合文意。
 
8.[精解] 本题考查动词词义辨析。空格所在部分是even when引导的让步状语从句,其中it指代上文的Roman thought(罗马人的想法),空格处填入的动词是谓语,其宾语是religious and moral concepts。选项中,abandon意为"放弃,抛弃",如abandon the hope/one's lands(放弃希望/丢下土地)。catch意为"染病;听见,理解",如catch a cold/what you said(得感冒/弄懂你说的话)。separate意为"分开,隔开",如It is impossible to separate belief from emotion.(信仰和感情是分不开的。)involve意为"包含;牵涉,牵连",如Any investment involves an element of risk.(任何投资都有一定的冒险成分。)a serious incident involving a group of youths(涉及一群年轻人的严重事件)。根据句意,应选[D],表示"即使涉及到宗教和道德概念"。
 
9.[精解] 本题考查动词用法辨析。空格所在部分was__9__为谓语动词的被动式,其主语是The first ruler,不定式结构to have... 作主补。be told to do意为"被命令、吩咐做某事",如He was told to sit down and wait.(有人吩咐他坐下等着。)be held to be/do意为"被认为是/做......",如These vases are held to be the finest examples of Greek art.(这些花瓶被视为最精美的希腊艺术代表作。)suggest不与不定式连用,因此不存在be suggested to do的结构。be advised to do意为"被建议做某事",如He was advised to take a complete rest.(他被建议彻底休息一下。)文中不定式的完成式to have received表明该动作发生在空格动词动作之前,根据句意,应选择[B]held,表示"统治者被认为已经获得了......"。
 
10.[精解] 本题考查根据上下文选择恰当的词。空格处填入的名词被constitutional(立宪的,宪法的)修饰。tendency意为"趋势,倾向";procedure意为"程序,手续,步骤";development意为"发展";relation意为"关系"。根据句意,选择[C],表示"宪法的发展"。
 
11.[精解] 本题考查根据上下文选择恰当的词。authority意为"权力,职权";power意为"控制力,操纵力;权力";control意为"控制";ruling意为"判决,裁定,统治"。由于上文提到,"统治者从神那里获得了权利(authority)",因此空格所在句子的含义应是"宪法授予和管理该权力",此外,下文也提到"行使权力(exercise authority)",因此本题最佳答案是[A]。
 
12.[精解] 本题考查名词词义辨析。officers指"官员";men指"男人们";administrators指"管理人员,行政官员";复数形式的fathers一般指"祖先,先父"。下文的插入语the family... senate是空格处名词的同位语,其中the family head是对father的解释,senate(参议院)与assembly(立法机构)在含义上相呼应。因此本题应选[D]。
 
13.[精解] 本题考查动词词义辨析。空格处填入动词,其主语是the assembly of the fathers,宾语是the religious character。[A]possess意为"拥有;具有(特质)",如He doesn't possess a sense of humor.(他没有什么幽默感。)[A]在文中可表示"具有(宗教特质)",符合文意。其它项:claim意为"要求,请求,主张";assure意为"保证,担保",一般接sb.作宾语;enforce意为"强制执行,强行实施;强迫"。
 
14.[精解] 本题考查形近动词辨析。空格所在部分是because引导的状语从句,解释上文"先父们的立法机构拥有行使权利所必须的宗教特质"的原因。confirm意为"确定,批准,证实";confer意为"授予";consult意为"咨询,请教";consider意为"考虑"。根据句意,应选[C],表示"向神寻求建议或启示"。
 
15.[精解] 本题考查短语动词辨析。move over意为"挪开,让位置",如He felt he should move over in favor of a younger man.(他觉得他应该让位给一个更年轻的人。)move along意为"向前移动(以腾出空间)",如The people in the bus moved along, to make room for others.(公车里的人往前挪以便给别人腾地方。)move on意为"往前走;开始做(新的事情)",如Can we move on to the next item on the agenda?(我们可以接着讨论下一项议程吗?)move about意为"不停地走动",如You will be warm enough if you move about.(如果你到处走动一下你就会感到很暖和的。)上文提到,"最初的参议院拥有行使权利所必须的宗教特质",本句则提到,"参议员们将权利再进行分割",显然,两个分句之间是"继续,接着"的含义,应选[C]。
 
16.[精解] 本题考查形容词词义辨析。空格处填入的形容词修饰months。alternate可意为"间隔的,每隔(......天的)",如He has to work on alternate Sundays.(他每隔一周就有一个周日得上班。)different意为"不同的",如shirts of different colors(颜色不同的衬衫)。varied意为"各种各样的",如varied cultures(各种不同的文化)。several意为"几个,若干",如several hours a day(每天几个小时)。根据句意,司法官或总管官员拥有权力的时间应是"每隔一个月",而不是"不同的月"、"各种各样的月"或"几个月"。因此,[A]为正确项。
 
17.[精解] 本题考查逻辑词。空格处填入的连词表示所在分句与上文之间的逻辑关系。上文提到,参议院拥有权利,并将它下放到各级官员手中。空格所在部分是一个长句,其主干结构是the achievement was to create the idea of continuing... authority(成就是创造持续的......权力的概念)。authority后是两个并列的分词结构,即,embodied... in和conferred... 作后置定语。由句意可知,本句仍然在讨论权力下放的问题,但它强调这种权力不完全属于上层阶级,也需要大众的认可。因此在含义上本句出现了转折。选项中,And表并列,So表因果,Or表选择,But表转折。[D]为正确项。
 
18.[精解] 本题考查根据上下文选择恰当的词。空格处的名词作定语,修饰authority。本文一开始就提到罗马人关于国家理论的形成(Roman theorizing about the state)。文中多次出现了关键词state。因此可推知,空格部分涉及的是应是"国家权力"。state authority是表达"国家权力"的习惯搭配,一般不用country或people,national authority常表示"民族权力机构"。
 
19.[精解] 本题考查连词用法辨析。空格处填入一连词,引导后面的从句,和空格前的过去分词一起在句子中作状语。该分词结构可以扩充为一个完整的句子,即,authority was conferred only__19__the mass of the people concurred. 由于as和so都不与only连用,应排除。能与only连用的连词是when和if。only when引导时间状语从句,意为"只有在......时候才......",如Only when he read the newspaper did he know the story.(只有在他看了报纸后他才知道那则报导。)only if引导条件从句,多与现在时连用,意为"只有在......条件下才......",如Only if the red light comes on is there any danger to employees.(只有红灯闪亮时才有危及职工的险情。)正确项为[B]。
 
20.[精解] 本题考查名词词义辨析。空格所在部分with enormous__ 20__作状语,修饰grew。dimension意为"大小,规模,程度,范围";complexity意为"复杂性";exercise意为"活动,练习;行使,运用";function意为"功能"。下文as引导时间状语从句,说明了主语动作发生的背景和原因。"新的部门和立法机构被创造出来并且几乎没有任何一个被摈弃"导致的结果应该是"系统越来越复杂",[B]为正确项。
 
全文翻译
 
奥古斯都(罗马帝国第一代皇帝)的成功很大程度上归功于罗马人将国家理论化的特点。罗马人没有制定出让希腊人感兴趣的建设理想国家的宏伟蓝图。在柏拉图的《理想国》中不涉及具体个人或国家的一种个人与国家之间的关系被详细地设计出来,但罗马理论家们几乎无一例外地忽视或拒绝接受像《理想国》这样的智力训练,认为它们毫无价值。罗马人最接近希腊模式的是西塞罗的《论国家》,甚至在这本书中西塞罗的心中已经对罗马有了非常清楚的想法。即使涉及到宗教和道德概念,罗马人关于国家的想法也是具体的。罗马的第一位统治者罗穆卢斯被认为从神,尤其是从罗马的守护神宙斯那里获得了权力。所有宪法的发展都是一种赋予和监督这种权力的方法。很显然,人们相信只有先父们的立法机构,即一家之主们组成的最初的参议院,才拥有行使这种权力所必需的宗教特质,因为它最初的功能是寻求神的启示。既实际又排外的参议员们将权力再进一步分割,认为他们的司法官或总管官员,将每隔一个月拥有这项权力,并在之后将其拥有权扩大到更低等级的官员。但是重要的成就是创造了持续的国家权力的概念,这种权力只是临时体现在某些上层阶级的个人身上,并且只有当普通大众一致同意的时候才被赋予。当新的部门和立法机构被创造出来并且几乎没有任何一个被摈弃的时候,这个系统变得越来越复杂。
 
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
 
Part A
Directions:
 
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
 
Text 1
U. S.-led occupation authorities have begun a secret campaign to recruit and train agents with the once-dreaded Iraqi intelligence service to help identify resistance to American forces here after months of increasingly sophisticated attacks and bombings, according to U.S.. and Iraqi officials.
 
The extraordinary move to recruit agents of former president's security services demonstrates a growing recognition among U.S. officials that American military forces-already stretched thin-cannot alone prevent attacks like the devastating truck bombing of the U.N. headquarters recently, the officials said.
 
Authorities have stepped up the recruitment over the past two weeks, one senior U.S. official said, despite sometimes firm objections by members of the U.S.-appointed Iraqi Governing Council, who complain that they have too little control over the pool of recruits. While U.S. officials acknowledge the sensitivity of cooperating with a force that embodied the ruthlessness of the overthrown president's rule, they assert that an urgent need for better and more precise intelligence has forced unusual compromises.
 
"The only way you can combat terrorism is through intelligence," the senior official said. "It's the only way you're going to stop these people from doing what they're doing." He added: "Without Iraqi input, that's not going to work."
 
Officials are reluctant to disclose how many former agents have been recruited since the effort began. But Iraqi officials say they number anywhere from dozens to a few hundred, and U.S. officials acknowledge that the recruitment is extensive.
 
"We're reaching out very widely," said one official with the U.S.-led administration, who like most spoke on condition of anonymity because of sensitivity over questions of intelligence and sources.
 
Added a Western diplomat: "There is an obvious evolution in American thinking. First the police are reconstituted, then the army. It is logical that intelligence officials from the regime would also be recruited."
 
Officials say the first line of intelligence-gathering remains the Iraqi police, who number 6,500 in Baghdad and 33,000 nationwide. But that force is hampered in intelligence work by a lack of credibility with a belief-broken public, and its numbers remain far below what U.S. officials say they need to bring order to an unruly capital. Across Iraq, walk-in informers have provided tips on weapons hidings and locations of suspected guerrillas, but many Iraqis dismiss those reports as occasional and sometimes motivated by a desire for personal gain.
 
The emphasis in recruitment appears to be on the intelligence service known as the Mukhabarat, one of four branches in the former security service, although it is not the only target for the U.S. effort. The Mukhabarat, whose name itself inspired fear in ordinary Iraqis, was the foreign intelligence service, the most sophisticated of the four.
 
1. America's attitude towards Iraqi intelligence was one of _____
[A] disgust [B] hatred [C] fear [D] resent
 
2. The word "devastating" (Line 3, Paragraph 2) is closest in meaning to _____
[A] destructive [B] regretful [C] frustrating [D] terrible
 
3. The U.S. officials consider the nature of the recruitments of former security services _____
[A] give-ins to the bombing
[B] setbacks of US-led administration
[C] examples of US-Iraqi cooperation
[D] compromises of some kind
 
24. Which of the following is true regarding the recruitment of the intelligence?
[A] The new-release people are unwilling to tell anything about themselves.
[B] It is just a preparatory step for the reconstruction of the Iraqi armed forces.
[C] The western world as a whole dislikes the idea of reconstruction in this way.
[D] An obvious connection exists in the reconstructions of the army and the police.
 
5. A large part of the Iraqi people hold information about weapon hidings as _____
[A] fear-inspired [B] money-driven
[C] unreliable [D] sophisticated
 
答案
1.C 2.A 3.D 4.A 5.B
 
-总体分析
 
本文是一篇关于以美国为首的占领当局招募前伊拉克情报局的特工的报道。
第一段:介绍该招募行动的起因。
第二段:指出该招募行动的意义。
第三、四段:美高级官员声称该招募行动是为了打击恐怖主义而做出的妥协。
第五、六段:政府官员不愿意透露这项行动的具体情况。
第七段:指出其他西方国家将这一举措看作是美国人思想进步的表现。
第八段:介绍目前伊拉克情报收集的不良状况。
第九段:介绍招募行动的重点部门。
 
试题精解
 
1.美国对伊拉克情报的态度是 _____
[A]厌恶 [B]仇恨 [C]恐惧 [D]怨恨
 
[精解] 本题考查事实细节。第一段提到,以美国为首的占领当局已经开始了一项秘密的活动,招募并培训曾在使人们胆战心惊(once-dreaded)的伊拉克情报局工作过的特工。选项中四个词都是贬义词,与dread最接近的含义是[C]恐惧。
 
2. 第二段第三行的单词"devastating"最接近的含义是_____。
[A] 破坏性的 [B] 惋惜的
[C] 令人沮丧的 [D] 可怕的
 
[精解] 本题考查词义理解。"devastating"一词出现在第二段末句,形容最近发生在联合国办事处的汽车炸弹爆炸事件的特点。该句指出,美国官员逐渐认识到过度分散的美国军队已无力独自承担防止这种事件的发生。第一段提到这类爆炸事件时,用了"策划日益精密(increasingly sophisticated)"来形容。由此可见,这类爆炸事件是极具破坏性的,因此引起了美国当局的极大重视。[A]正确,[D]表达含义太泛。
 
3.美国官员认为对前安全机构的招募的性质是 _____。
[A] 向爆炸事件的屈服
[B] 以美国为首的占领当局遇到的挫折
[C] 美国和伊拉克合作的事例
[D] 某种程度的妥协
 
[精解] 本题考查事实细节。第三段末句提到,虽然美官员们承认与伊拉克情报局的特工合作是一件敏感的事,但由于迫切需要更好的、更精确的情报,不得不做出一些不寻常的妥协(compromises)。因此[D]正确。[A]give-ins是原文compromises的同义表达,但to the bombing是错误的。招募行为是美国为对付恐怖主义采取的新举措,而不是遇到的挫折。排除[B]。由于是招募伊拉克特工为美国所用,因此不能看作是美伊两国之间的合作,排除[C]。
 
4.下面哪一个是关于招募情报人员的正确说法?
[A] 新近释放的特工不愿意透露他们自己的任何事情。
[B] 这只是筹备重建伊拉克武装部队的一个步骤。
[C] 整个西方世界都不喜欢以这种方式重建的想法。
[D] 在军队和警察部队的重建中存在一种明显的关联性。
 
[精解] 本题考查推理引申。第五段首句提到,政府官员不愿意公开自招募行动开始后有多少前机构的特工加入。[A]中"新近释放的特工(new-release people)"指的就是该句中的"前机构的特工(former agent)"。[A]中are unwilling to tell与该句中的reluctant to disclose是同义表达。第七段引用一位西方外交官的话指出,无论是之前的"重建警察部队"和"重建军队",还是现在的"招募情报官员"都是美国人思想进步的表现。因此"招募情报官员"是重建伊拉克武装部队的具体内容,而非筹备活动,排除[B]。西方世界持的是肯定态度,排除[C]。该段没有提到"重建警察部队"和"重建军队"之间的联系,排除[D]。
 
5. 大部分伊拉克人认为有关武器藏匿的消息 _____。
[A] 会引起人们的恐惧 [B] 是受金钱驱使的
[C] 是不可靠的 [D] 是复杂的
 
[精解] 本题考查推理引申。第八段末句提到,很多伊拉克人认为有关武器藏匿的情报偶尔才能得到,而且有时是一些人为获得个人利益而出卖这些情报的。[B]是该句中motivated by a desire for personal gain的改写,因此是正确项。
 
核心词汇或超纲词汇
 
(1)stretch(v.)拉长,撑大;伸展,舒展;延伸,绵延
 
(2)reconstitute(v.)重新构成,重新制定
 
(3)regime (n.)政体,制度,政权
 
(4)credibility(n.)可信性,可靠性
 
(5)unruly (a.)难控制的,无法无天的,任性的
 
(6)walk-in(a.)大得能走进去的;未经预约的,无需事先约定的,如:a ~ interview(未经预约的访谈)
 
全文翻译
 
据美国和伊拉克的官员透露,在持续几个月发生了策划日益精密的袭击和爆炸事件后,以美国为首的占领当局已经开始了一项秘密的活动,招募并培训曾在使人们胆战心惊的伊拉克情报局工作过的特工,以帮助确认对美国军队的抵制行为。
 
官员们还说,这次不同寻常的招募前总统安全机构的特工表明美国官员逐渐认识到,过度分散的美国军队已无力独自承担防止这种最近发生在联合国办事处的大规模杀伤性汽车炸弹爆炸事件。
 
一位美高级官员说,过去两周内美国当局已经加速了招募行动,尽管有时遭到美国任命的伊拉克执政委员会成员的强烈反对。这些成员抱怨他们招募这批特工的权利太小。虽然美官员们承认与代表被推翻的前总统的残暴统治的军队合作是一件敏感的事,但他们也声称,由于迫切需要更好的、更精确的情报,不得不做出一些不寻常的妥协。
 
这位美高级官员说,"打击恐怖主义的唯一办法就是利用情报。这是唯一可以阻止那些人停止他们正在做的事情的办法。"他补充到,"没有伊拉克成员的加入,这个办法就无法发挥作用。"
 
政府官员不愿意公开自招募行动开始后有多少前机构的特工加入。但是伊拉克官员说该数量从几十到几百不等,美国官员则承认是大规模的招募。
 
"我们触及的范围非常广," 美国为首的占领当局的一名官员说。由于情报和信息来源等敏感性问题,该官员喜欢在匿名的条件下发言。
 
一位西方外交官补充说:"美国人的思想有明显的进步。"首先是重建警察部队,然后是重建军队。因此,从前政权招募情报官员也是合理的。
 
官员们声称,一线情报收集人员是伊拉克警方,他们在巴格达的数量达6500,在全国达33000。但是该武装的情报收集工作由于信仰遭到破坏的公众对他们缺乏信任而受阻碍,并且它的数量远低于美国官员所说的使处于混乱状态的首都恢复秩序所需要的数量。在整个伊拉克,事先没有约定的检举者们提供了有关武器藏匿和可疑的游击队据点的情报,但是很多伊拉克人认为这些情报偶尔才能得到,而且有时是一些人为获得个人利益而出卖这些情报的。
 
招募行动的重点部门是被称之为"秘密警察"的情报机构,它是前安全机构的四个分支机构之一,但它不是美国政府努力的唯一目标。"秘密警察"的名字本身就能在伊拉克平民中引起恐慌,它是外交情报局,四个机构中最高级的部门。
 
Text 2
The real heroine of the novel stands at one remove to the narrative. On the face of it, readers are more likely to empathize with, and be curious about, the mysterious and resourceful slave, Sarah, who forms one point of an emotional triangle. Sarah is the property of Manon, and came with her to a failing Louisiana sugar plantation on her marriage to the good-for-nothing, bullying owner. But Manon's husband is soon struck by Sarah, and the proof lies in their idiot small son, Walter.
 
However, the reader is forced to see things through Manon's eyes, not Sarah's, and her consciousness is not a comfortable place to be. Never a please or a thank you passes her lips when talking to slaves, though manners is the order of the day in white society. Manon is enormously attracted by inter-racial marriage (for the place and time-the early 19th century-such a concern would not be unusual, but in her case it seems pathological). Walter, with "his father's curly red hair and green eyes, his mother's golden skin, her full, pushing-forward lips", is the object of her especial hatred, but she chatters on about all the "dreadful mixed-blooded", the objectionable "yellow" people.
 
Beyond Manon's polarized vision, we glimpse "free negros" and the emerging black middle-class. To Manon's disgust, such people actually have self-respect. In New Orleans buying shoes, Manon is taken aback by the shopkeeper's lack of desired respect. Mixed race prostitutes acquired the affections of male planters by giving them something mysterious their wives cannot often What that might be, and why wives can't offer it too, are questions Manon can't even ask, let alone answer.
 
The first third of the book explores the uneasy and unsustainable peace between Manon, Sarah and the man always called just "my husband" or "he". Against the background of violent slave revolts and equally savage revenges, it's clear the peace cannot last. It's part of the subtlety of this book that as the story develops and the inevitable explosion occurs, our view of all the characters swiftly changes. Sarah turns out to deserve all the suspicion Manon directs at her; at the point of death Manon's husband displays an admirable toughness and courage; and Manon herself wins the reader's reluctant admiration for her bravery, her endurance, and her total lack of self-pity.
 
Perhaps the cruelest aspect of this society is the way it breaks down and distorts family affections. A slave's baby is usually sold soon after birth; Sarah's would-be husband, if he wants her, must buy her; and Manon herself, after all, is only the property of her husband.
 
1. Which of the following reflects Manon's attitude towards colored people?
[A] Sympathetic. [B] Suspicious.
[C] Concerned. [D] Disgusted.
 
2. It can be inferred from the text that the novel is written _____.
[A] with a mobile point of view
[B] with a limited third person singular
[C] from Manon's perspective
[D] from Sarah's eye as a slave
 
3. According to Manon, black people should _____.
[A] emerge as free middle class citizens
[B] behave submissively towards the whites
[C] have self-respect in the mixed race marriage
[D] learn to offer more affection to their wives
 
4. We learn that as the story develops _____.
[A] readers will think differently of all the characters
[B] Manon's husband will win back her admiration
[C] the emotional crisis will be swiftly resolved
[D] all the suspicion will be proved against Sarah
 
5. From the text we learn that _____.
[A] Manon's husband is a nameless but bullying person
[B] Manon is the real heroine who deserves readers' sympathy
[C] Sarah is in fact smarter than her master Manon
[D] Walter is a proof of the mixed race prostitution
 
答案
1. D 2.C 3.B 4.A 5.B
 
总体分析
 
本文介绍了一本有关黑人奴隶的小说的故事情节、写作手法及反映的社会问题。
第一段:介绍了黑人女奴莎拉。
第二、三段:介绍了白人女主人玛侬对黑人的厌恶。
第四段:指出小说的特点是故事最后我们对所有人物的看法突然都发生了改变。
第五段:概括该小说所反映的社会问题。
 
试题精解
 
1. 下面哪一个反映了玛侬对待有色人种的态度?
[A] 同情。 [B] 怀疑。 [C] 关心。 [D] 厌恶。
 
[精解] 本题考查推理引申。第二段第二句介绍了玛侬和奴隶谈话从不注意礼貌。第二段第三句提到,玛侬对异族通婚有着强烈的兴趣(enormously attracted)...... 她的过度关注却是病态的(pathological)。该段末句提到,玛侬喋喋不休地谈论着所有"可怕的混血",讨厌的"黄种"人。综合上述内容可知,玛侬对有色人种是厌恶的。[D]正确。
 
2.从文章中可以推知这篇小说的写作 _____。
[A] 带有一种变化的观点
[B] 用一种局限的第三人称单数形式
[C] 从玛侬的视角出发
[D] 通过奴隶莎拉的视角出发
 
[精解] 本题考查推理引申。第二段首句提到,读者被迫通过玛侬,而不是莎拉的视角去看这一切。由此可知[C]正确,排除[D]。第四段第三句提到,这本书的微妙之处在于随着故事情节的发展读者对所有人物的看法突然发生了改变。因此持变化观点的是读者,而非作者,排除[A]。第四段首句提到,玛侬的丈夫总是被称之为"我的丈夫"或"他",没有给出名字,但由第二段首句可知,主人公玛侬是第一称。因此[B]也不正确。
 
3.在玛侬看来,黑人应该 _____ 。
[A] 作为自由的中产阶级市民出现
[B] 对白人顺从
[C] 在异族通婚中有自尊
[D] 学会给予妻子更多的关爱
 
[精解] 本题考查推理引申。第三段第二句提到,让玛侬感到厌恶的是,黑人实际上也有自尊。接着下文分别举出买鞋子和妓女的事例说明玛侬不会接受黑人胆敢不尊重白人和黑人妇女得到白人男人的爱。由此可推出[B]是玛侬对黑人的看法。[A]在该段首句中提到,是社会背景,不是玛侬的观点。由第二段末句中"可怕的混血,讨厌的黄种人"可知,玛侬显然是蔑视异族通婚的,排除[C]。[D]无从推知。
 
4.我们知道,随着故事情节的发展,_____。
[A] 读者对所有人物的看法将发生改变
[B] 玛侬的丈夫将重新赢回她的赞赏
[C] 情感危机将迅速得到解决
[D] 所有的猜疑最后都将指向莎拉
 
[精解] 本题考查事实细节。第四段第三句提到,随着故事情节的发展,我们对所有人物的看法突然都发生了改变。因此[A]正确。该段末句只提到,玛侬的丈夫最后表现出令人钦佩的坚强和勇气,而玛侬本人则赢得了读者的钦佩。但玛侬和丈夫之间的关系没有提及,因此排除[B]。文中也没有提到"情感危机"的结局,排除[C]。[D]错在"所有的怀疑",文中是"玛侬对莎拉所有的怀疑",因此也应排除。
 
5.从文章中我们可得知 _____。
[A] 玛侬的丈夫是不知名的、仗势欺人的人
[B] 玛侬是值得读者同情的真正的女英雄
[C] 莎拉事实上比她的主人玛侬更聪明
[D] 沃特是异族卖淫的证明
 
[精解] 本题考查事实细节。文章首句提到,这篇小说中真正的女英雄离所叙述的内容有一段距离。因此文章一开始就埋下了伏笔。接下来文章介绍了小说的主人公及大概情节。到了第四段末,文章指出,读者对所有人物的看法突然都发生了改变。玛侬对莎拉的怀疑都是有根据的,而且玛侬还赢得了读者对她个性的由衷的钦佩。由此可见,玛侬是文章一开始提到的"真正的女英雄"。[B]正确。玛侬的丈夫在第一段中是"仗势欺人的人",但到了第四段则"表现出令人钦佩的坚强和勇气",因此[A]不正确。[C]无从推知。由第一段末可知,沃特是男主人和莎拉的私生子,[D]错在prostitution。
 
核心词汇或超纲词汇
 
(1)remove(n.)距离,差距,间距,如:She seemed to be living at one ~ from reality.(她好象生活在现实之外的什么地方。)
 
(2)resourceful (a.) 资源丰富的;有机智的,多策略的,足智多谋的
 
(3)be struck by/on/with sb./sth.被某人(或某物)打动,迷住
 
(4)the order of the day常见的,流行的,适宜的,如:Pessimism seems to be ~.(悲观失望似乎是当今司空见惯的情形。)
 
(5)pathological(a.)不理智的,无道理的,无法控制的;病态的
 
(6)objectionable(a.)令人不快的,令人反感的,讨厌的
 
(7)polarized(a.)两极化的,截然对立的
 
(8)unsustainable(a.)不能持续的,无法维持的
 
(9)explosion(n.)爆炸;突增,猛增;(感情,尤指愤怒的)突然爆发,迸发
 
(10)mobile(a.)可移动的;流动的;多变的,易变的
 
全文翻译
 
这篇小说中真正的女英雄离所叙述的内容有一段距离。表面上看,读者更容易对神秘而足智多谋的女奴莎拉产生同情和好奇,因为她成为了三角恋爱关系中的一角。莎拉是玛侬的财产,因此当女主人来到路易斯安那州破败的糖料种植园,嫁给懒惰、仗势欺人的男主人时,莎拉也跟随而来。但是玛侬的丈夫很快被莎拉迷住,这从他们生下来的弱智的小儿子沃特那得到了证明。
 
然而,读者被迫通过玛侬,而不是莎拉的视角去看这一切。玛侬意识让人很不舒服。虽然礼貌在白人社会中是司空见惯的,但她和奴隶谈话时从不说"请"或"谢谢"。玛侬对异族通婚有着强烈的兴趣,(在这个故事发生的时间--19世纪初--和地点,这种关注是寻常的,但她的过度关注却是病态的)。沃特继承了他父亲的红色卷发和绿眼睛,他母亲的金色皮肤和丰满的、向前凸起的嘴唇,因此成了玛侬特别憎恨的对象。但是她仍然喋喋不休地谈论着所有"可怕的混血",讨厌的"黄种"人。
 
在玛侬矛盾的观点之外,我们可以粗略瞥见"自由的黑人"和正在兴起的黑人中产阶级。让玛侬感到厌恶的是,这些人实际上都有自尊。在新奥尔良买鞋子时,玛侬对店主出乎意料的粗鲁感到吃惊。异族的妓女们得到了男种植园主们的喜爱,因为她们可以提供妻子不能给予的一些神秘的东西。那些东西到底是什么?为什么妻子不能给予?这都是玛侬不可能提出来的问题,更别提回答了。
 
该书前三分之一的内容是有关玛侬、莎拉和那个总是被称之为"我的丈夫"或"他"的男人之间的不稳定的、难以持续的和平关系。在风起云涌的奴隶起义和奴隶报复行动的背景下,显然和平不会持续太久。这本书的微妙之处在于随着故事情节的发展,当感情不可避免地突然爆发时,我们对所有人物的看法突然都发生了改变。原来玛侬对莎拉的所有的怀疑都是有根据的;在死亡之际,玛侬的丈夫表现出令人钦佩的坚强和勇气;而玛侬本人则赢得了读者对她的勇敢、坚忍和毫不自怜的个性的由衷的钦佩。
 
也许这个社会最残忍的地方是它支解和扭曲家庭感情的方式。奴隶的孩子出生后很快就会被卖掉;莎拉未来的丈夫如果想要得到她就要用钱买;而玛侬自己也究竟只不过是她丈夫的财产。
 
Text 3
I am not one who golfs. The only time I tried it I was confident that a dozen balls would be an adequate supply. This is the sport of retired people: how hard could it be? The confidence was misplaced, also, one by one, the balls, and I had to quit somewhere around the seventh hole. On the sixth, actually, I hit a car-there was absolutely no reason for a highway to be that close to a golf course-but that's another story. The point is that the game did not yield up its mystery to me; I remain, in the golfing universe, a child of darkness. I do find that I am able to watch golf on television, however, where it is possible to experience a calmness that the game itself sadly lacks. Spread out on a couch and indifferent to the outcome (very important), you watch tiny white balls sail improbable distances over the biggest lawns in the world, interrupted occasionally by advertisements for expensive cars. One of the players is named Tiger. Another is named Love. If you have access to a bottle of Martinis (optional), the joy potential can be quite huge.
 
There is usually a price for pleasure so mindless. In the case of TV golf, it is listening to the commentators analyze the players' swings. What looks to you like a single, continuous, and not difficult act is revealed, via slow motion and a sort of virtual-chalkboard graphics, to be a sequence of intricately measured adjustments of shoulder to hip, head to arm, elbow to wrist, and so on. Where you see fluidity, the experts see geometry; what to you is nature is machinery to them-parallel lines, extended planes, points of impact. They murder to examine. Yet, apparently, these minutes and individualized measurements make all the difference between being able reliably to land a golf ball in an area, three hundred yards away, the size of a bathmat and, say, randomly hitting a car, which, let's face it, only a fool would drive right next to a golf course. There is a major disproportion, in other words, between the straightforwardness of the game and the fantastic precision required to play it, a disproportion mastered by a difficult but, to the ordinary observer, almost invisible technique.
 
Short stories are the same. A short story is not as restrictive as a sonnet, but, of all the literary forms, it is possibly the most single-minded. Its aim, as it was identified by the modern genre's first theorist, Edgar Allan Poe, is to create "an effect"-by which Poe meant something almost physical, like a sensation or an extreme excitement.
 
1. The author quotes his own experience with golf to show that _____.
[A] things are often not so simple and easy as they seem
[B] his experience with golf has been a frustrating failure
[C] that experience of his offered much for his later life
[D] apparent truths are more often than not unreliable
 
2. The author enjoys watching golf games on TV because _____.
[A] access to drinks makes the game more joyful
[B] a more enjoyable view of the game is provided
[C] he is thus unaffected by the result of the game
[D] that is more likely real appreciation of the game
 
3.What does the author imply when he says "There is usually...so mindless"(Line 1, Paragraph 2)?
[A] Commentators often interrupt your attention.
[B] TV golf is frequently unaffordable for many.
[C] One needs to pay handsomely for the setting.
[D] Some essential parts of the game are missing.
 
4. In the part succeeding the third paragraph, the author will most probably _____.
[A] draw an analogy between golf and short story
[B] elaborate the "effect" of short story
[C] show other examples similar to golf games
[D] show impact of golf games on short story
 
5. What is the relationship between Paragraph 1 and Paragraph 2?
[A] Paragraph 1 is an introduction to Paragraph 2.
[B] Paragraph 1 provides an example for Paragraph 2.
[C] Paragraph 1 and Paragraph 2 are both supporting details.
[D] Paragraph 2 serves as an analogy to Paragraph 1.
 
答案
21. A 22.C 23.D 24.B 25.A
 
总体分析
文章通过比较打高尔夫球和在电视上看高尔夫球的不同引出了短篇小说的创作,指出它所要达到的效果和看高尔夫球赛一样,都是要获得自然的感觉。本文主要写作方法是类比。
第一、二段:作者通过自己打高尔夫的经历说明看起来简单容易的事情做起来全然不同。普通人在电视上看高尔夫比赛的轻松和实际打高尔夫所要求的精湛技巧之间存在很大的反差。
第三段:将短篇小说的创作与打高尔夫球做类比,指出短篇小说的创作要达到的效果是让阅读者获得强烈的身体上的感受。
试题精解
1.作者引用自己打高尔夫的亲身经历是为了说明_____
A事情往往没有看起来的那么简单容易
B他打高尔夫的经历是令人沮丧的失败
C他的那次经历给他今后的生活带来了很多
D表面的真相总是不可信赖
[精解]本题考查考生对第一段的理解。该段作者讲述了自己打高尔夫的经历。作者开始尝试打高尔夫时充满自信,认为那只不过是退休一族的运动,不可能会很难。结果作者却发现自己的自信心放错了位置,真的打起来连连失败。接着作者联想到自己在电视机前观看高尔夫球赛的轻松经历,两种截然不同的感受说明了打高尔夫并不像看起来的那样简单。因此[A]项为作者想要说明的道理。[B]项是第一段前半部分阐述的事实,但不是作者要说明的道理。[C]项原文中没有涉及,[D]项含有贬义,属于过度推理。
2.作者享受观看电视上的高尔夫球比赛是因为_____
A喝饮料使观看比赛更愉快
B(这种方式使)观看球赛变得更有乐趣
C这样他就不会受比赛结果影响
D那才更可能是在真正地欣赏比赛
[精解]本题考查了事实细节。文章第一段的后半部分提到,作者在观看电视中的高尔夫球赛时,可以体验到一种比赛本身缺少的冷静,他在沙发上伸展四肢,然后对结果保持漠不关心的态度。由此可看出,[C]项是看电视上的比赛和亲身经历的区别所在,也就是作者可以享受观看比赛的原因。[A]、[B]项的joyfulenjoyable是题干中enjoys watching的同义表达,并没有给出造成这种结果的原因。[D]项是文中没有提到的观点。
3.当作者说"通常要为这种无所顾忌的快乐付出一定的代价"时,他在暗示什么?
A评论员经常分散你的注意力
B对很多人来说,电视上的高尔夫比赛常常太昂贵
C人们需要为场景慷慨地付钱
D比赛的一些必要部分丧失了
[精解]本题考查考生理解基础上的推理引申能力。文章第一段后面部分讲述了作者观看电视高尔夫球赛时的悠然自得的感受。第二段首句则指出"为快乐通常要付出代价"。该段接下来的内容则开始比较观看球赛和实际打球之间的巨大差异:观看球赛时,可以听到评论员分析球员的挥杆。对观看的人来说,它是单一的持续的,而且看不到难度动作,但经过慢动作和一些虚拟的黑板图表的处理后,它就成了一系列复杂的缓慢的身体各个部位的协调动作。人们看到的是流动性,而在专家眼里则成了几何图形,对观众来说很自然的东西,对他们来说却是机械原理。第二段末句作者总结指出,比赛看上去的简单明了和实际需要的不可思议的精确度之间存在很大的差异。因此二段首句中的"快乐"指的是观看球赛的轻松状态,而"代价"则指的是现实中比赛所要求的东西。而这些必要的东西在观看时丧失了。[D]项是作者暗示的内容。B]、[C]项提到的费用问题在文中根本未涉及。[A]项不是作者观点。
4.在第三段之后,作者很可能叙述的内容是 _____
A对高尔夫和短篇小说进行类比
B详细阐述短篇小说的"效果"
C列举其他与高尔夫比赛相似的例子
D阐释高尔夫比赛对短篇小说的影响
[精解]本题考查考生对文章写作结构的理解。第三段论述了短篇小说与高尔夫比赛相似的特点。该段引用了现代流派的第一位理论家埃德加爱伦坡的观点阐明短篇小说的效果是为了创造一种效果。因此,可推知文章接下来应该对这一效果进行详细论述,告诉读者这种效果到底指的是什么,怎样达到。[B]项正确。文章前半部分的论述都是为了引出短篇小说这个话题,所以点题之后,无需再对高尔夫这个引子进行叙述。由此排除其他项。
5.第一段和第二段的关系是什么?
A第一段是对第二段的初步介绍
B第一段为第二段提供例证
C第一段和第二段都是支持性细节
D第二段是第一段的类比
[精解]本题考查第一、二段的写作结构。这两段讲述的都是关于高尔夫的事情,第一段作者先用自己的亲身经历对高尔夫比赛进行了介绍,说明看上去很简单的事情做起来却并非如此。接着联系到观看电视上的比赛,指出观看者可以置身事外,对结果毫不关心,得到无所顾忌的快乐。第二段从"快乐"过渡到"也需要一定的代价",开始论述看球赛与亲自参与球赛之间巨大的差异。显然,这两段之间是很自然的承接关系,[A]项为正确答案。类比应该是不同事物的相似之处的比较,而这两段主要讲的是亲身经历和电视上的不同。这两段中也不存在例证的证明关系,所以[B]项和[D]项错误。第一、二段在全文中占了很大篇幅,不应该只是细节,[C]项错误。
(1)misplacev.)放错地方mis-前缀意为"",如mislead...带错路,misspell拼错
(2)yield up放纵,被迫放弃~ a secret泄露秘密
(3)sailv.)航行;轻快地、平稳地或不费力地行进;轻易成功~ through the examination轻而易举通过考试
(4)mindlessa.)愚笨无知的,粗心大意的;(of)不留心的;不顾的~ of danger不顾危险
(5)commentatorn.)评论员,讲解员;commentatev.)评论,解说;commentaryn.)注释,解说词
(6)swingn./v.)摇摆,摆动;回转,旋转;骤变,剧变
(7)virtuala.)虚的,在头脑中存在的,意想的产物;实际上的,事实上的;virtualityn.
(8)chalkboardn.)黑板;与board有关的合成词有:bellyboard冲浪运动板,bulletin board (电子)公告牌,keyboard键盘
(9)graphics n.(作单数用)制图法,图形;书法,字体
(10)fluidityn.)流动性,流质,变移性;fluidn.)液体,流质;流动性(a.)液体的,流体的不固定的,易变的
(11)geometryn.)几何学;geo-前缀表示"地球,土地"的含义,如geography地理学
(12)machineryn.)机器,机械(总称);机关,团体the ~ of government政府机构;机构,组织~ for dealing with complaints处理申诉的机构
(13)murderv.)谋杀;糟蹋,破坏(语言、音乐等);浪费(时间)~one's evenings in private parties将夜晚时间浪费在私人举办的社交聚会上
(14)disproportionn./v.)(使)不均衡,(使)不成比例;proportionn.)比例;均衡;部分
(15)sonnetn.)十四行诗,一种由十四行组成的诗歌形式,通常有一种传统的押韵形式
全文翻译
我不是一个打高尔夫的人。仅仅尝试过一次,开始还是满怀自信地以为一打球就足够了。这是退休人员的运动,还能有多难?自信被放错地方了,球也一个接一个地错位。我在第七个球穴周围放弃了。实际上,在第六杆球的时候,我击中了一辆汽车。完全没有理由把高速公路建在离球场那么近的地方,可那是另外一回事了。关键在于这个游戏没有把它的神秘展现给我,而我,在高尔夫的世界里,永远是一个无知的孩子。可是,我确实发现我能观看电视上的高尔夫球,而且从中可以体验到高尔夫球赛本身缺少的冷静。在沙发上伸展开四肢躺下,并对结果(至关重要的结果)保持漠不关心的态度。你看着白色的小球在世界上最大的草坪上越过不可能的距离,这种观看偶尔会被一些昂贵的汽车广告打断。一名球员是泰格,还有一位叫做劳夫。你可以拿一瓶马丁酒(也可以选别的),那种潜在的快乐是巨大无比的。
通常要为这种无所顾忌的快乐付出一定的代价。在电视上看高尔夫,是听评论员们分析球员挥杆。在你看来是单个的,持续的没有什么难度的动作,经过一些慢动作以及虚拟黑板图表处理被显示成了从肩到臀,从头到胳膊,从肘到腕等一系列复杂的缓慢的协调动作。你看到的是流动性,而专家看到的却是几何图形。在你看来很自然的事情,在专家眼里却很机械--平行线,延伸的水平面,击球点,他们都要费时间检查。可是,显然,正是这些时刻和个性化的尺寸使球手能够成功地将球击进300码远处浴室地垫那么大小的地方,而不是胡乱地击中一辆汽车。当然,我们得承认,是个笨蛋把车开到了球场附近。换言之,在游戏看似的简单和打球要求的不可思议的精确度之间存在着很大的不相称不均衡,这种不相称,在普通人看来是由很难、但看不见的技术控制的。
短篇小说也是如此。一篇短篇小说不像十四行诗那么严格,但是在所有的文学形式中,它可能是最简单直接的。正如现代流派的第一位理论家--埃德加爱伦坡所说的那样,短篇小说的目的是创造一种效果,也就是爱伦坡说的让阅读者获得强烈的身体上的感受。
Text 4
 
There have been rumors. There's been gossip. All Hollywood is shocked to learn that Calista Flockhart, star of Fox's hit TV show Ally McBeal, is so thin. And we in the media are falling all over ourselves trying to figure out whether Flockhart has an eating disorder, especially now that she has denied it. Well, I'm not playing the game. If the entertainment industry really cared about sending the wrong message on body image, it wouldn't need so many slender celebrities in the first place.
 
But the fact remains that 2 million Americans-most of them women and girls-do suffer from eating disorders. In the most extreme cases they literally starve themselves to death. And those who survive are at greater risk of developing brittle bones, life-threatening infections, kidney damage and heart problems. Fortunately, doctors have learned a lot over the past decade about what causes eating disorders and how to treat them.
 
The numbers are shocking. Approximately 1 in 150 teenage girls in the U. S. falls victim to anorexia nervosa, broadly defined as the refusal to eat enough to maintain even a minimal body weight. Not so clear is how many more suffer from bulimia, in which they binge on food, eating perhaps two or three days' worth of meals in 30 minutes, then remove the excess by taking medicine to move the bowels or inducing vomiting. Nor does age necessarily protect you. Anorexia has been diagnosed in girls as young as eight. Most deaths from the condition occur in women over 45.
 
Doctors used to think eating disorders were purely psychological. Now they realize there's some problematic biology as well. In a study published in the Archives of General Psychiatry recently, researchers found abnormal levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain, in women who had been free of bulimia for at least a year. That may help explain why drugs have allowed a lot of people to stop swallowing in large doses of food. Unfortunately, the pills don't work as well for denial of food. Nor do they offer a simple one-stop cure. Health-care workers must re-educate their patients in how to eat and think about food.
 
How can you tell if someone you love has an eating disorder? "Bulimics will often leave evidence around as if they want to get caught." Says Tamara Pryor, director of an eating-disorders clinic at the University of Kansas in Wichita. Anorexics, by contrast, are more likely to go through long periods of denial.
 
1. We can infer from the first paragraph that _____.
[A] the media has mislead the public's view of celebrities
[B] there is much misunderstanding about eating disorders
[C] body image concerns are an indication of eating disorders
[D] the entertainment industry is combating eating disorders
 
2. The victims of eating disorders, more often than not, will _____.
[A] starve themselves to death
[B] suffer greatly from the complications
[C] puzzle doctors in the years to come
[D] recover completely with no aftereffects
 
3. The word "binge" (Line 3, Paragraph 3) most probably means _____.
[A] eat excessively [B] refuse to eat
[C] fail to digest [D] enjoy a good appetite
 
4. Bulimia is found to be _____.
[A] related to the level of serotonin
[B] psychological rather than biological
[C] identical with anorexia nervosa in the cure
[D] a leading cause of death among middle-aged women
 
5. The way to find a person with eating disorders _____.
[A] focuses on hidden symptoms
[B] varies with type of the condition
[C] is oriented at the victim's response
[D] remains perplexing despite efforts made
 
答案
1.C 2.B 3.A 4.A 5.B
 
总体分析
 
本文主要介绍了两种饮食性疾患。
第一段:以一位明星的事例引出全文讨论的话题--饮食性疾患。
第二段至五段:介绍两种饮食性疾患(厌食症和暴食症)的危害、表现、治疗及判断方法。
 
试题精解
 
1.从第一段我们可以推知_______。
[A] 媒体误导了公众对名人的看法
[B] 有很多关于饮食性疾患的误解
[C] 对身体形象的关注是饮食性疾患的标志
[D] 娱乐业正在对抗饮食性疾患
 
[精解] 本题考查推理引申。第一段举了一位明星的例子,指出由于她过分消瘦,引起公众怀疑她患有饮食性疾患。由此可推出公众的怀疑是因为该明星对身体形象的过分关注,[C]项正确。该段末句用虚拟语气指出,"如果娱乐业真地担心在身体形象上传达错误的信息......"。言外之意是娱乐业在一定程度上误导了人们有关身体形象的看法。排除 [D]项,[A]项错在celebrity。[B]项无从推知,文章开始出现的rumors和gossip指的是公众对明星是否患病的猜测。
 
2.饮食性疾患的受害者经常会_____。
[A] 把自己饿死 [B] 因并发症而备受痛苦
[C] 在将来使医生感到迷惑 [D] 完全康复不留后遗症
 
[精解] 本题考查事实细节。第二段主要论述了饮食性疾患的危害及治疗情况。由第三句可知,饮食性疾患的幸存者,患各种其他疾病的危险更大。[B]项正确,排除[D]项。由第二句中in the most extreme cases排除[A]项;由末句可知,医生已经掌握了大量关于饮食性疾患的信息,排除[C]项。
 
3.第三段第三行的单词"binge"可能的含义是_____。
[A] 过量地吃 [B] 拒绝吃 [C] 消化不良 [D] 胃口很好
 
[精解] 本题考查词义。该词语上文suffer from bulimia暗示它是一种疾病,下文对该词作出了进一步解释:三十分钟内吃掉两三天的饭量。因此[A]项正确。
 
4.暴食症被发现_____。
[A] 和复合胺水平有关 [B] 是心理而非生理问题
[C] 在治疗方法上和厌食症一样 [D] 是中年妇女死亡的主要原因
 
[精解] 本题考查事实细节。由第四段第三句和第四句可知,研究发现复合胺有助于让许多人停止吞食大量的食物,即摆脱暴食症。因此[A]项正确。第三段首句指出,饮食性疾患(包括暴食症)也是生理问题,排除[B]项。第四段第五句指出,(治疗暴食症的)药物对于治疗厌食不起作用。排除[C]项。 [D]项文中未涉及,第三段末句提到,厌食症造成的死亡大多发生在45岁以上的妇女身上。
 
5.发现饮食性疾病患者的方式_____。
[A] 集中在不明显的症状上 [B] 因患病类型而不同
[C] 是针对病人的反应的 [D] 尽管作出了努力还是令人困惑
 
[精解] 本题考查事实细节。第五段指出,暴食症常常会留下证据,而厌食症则更可能会长期地否认。因此[B]项正确。
 
核心词汇与超纲词汇
 
(1)fall all over oneself 特别卖力,不遗余力
 
(2)literally(ad.)照字面意义地;真正,完全;差不多,简直
 
(3)fall victim(to sth.)受伤,受损,被害,如Many plants have fallen victim to the sudden frost(许多植物因突如其来的霜降冻伤了)。
 
(4)binge(n./v.)狂欢作乐,大吃大喝;~ on sth.,如She binges on chocalate when she's depressed(心情不好时她就使劲吃巧克力)。
 
(5)bowel(n.)肠,empty/move/open the ~s(排便);内部,the ~s of sth.内部最深处
 
(6)induce(v.)劝诱,促使,导致,引起
 
(7)vomit(n./v.)呕吐(物)
 
(8)problematic(a.)问题的,有疑问的
 
(9)denial(n.)否认,否定;拒绝
 
全文翻译
 
一直有谣言。一直有闲言碎语。得知福克斯热门电视剧《甜心俏佳人》中的明星卡莉斯塔 弗洛克哈特如此瘦弱,整个好莱坞都很震惊。而我们在媒体中尽力弄清楚弗洛克哈特是否有饮食性疾患,特别是现在她自己对此予以否认。好吧,我不是在兜圈子。如果娱乐业真地担心在身体形象上传达错误的信息,那么首先就不需要这么多身材纤细的名人。
 
但是事实仍然是,两百万美国人,尤其是妇女和女孩确实有饮食性疾患。在最极端的情形下,她们真地把自己饿死。而那些幸存者出现骨质疏松、威胁生命的传染病、肾损伤和心脏问题的危险更大。幸运的是,过去十年中医生就造成饮食性疾患的原因和治疗方法已经获悉了大量信息。
 
数字是惊人的。几乎150个青春期的女孩中就有一个成为厌食症的受害者。厌食症广义上被定义为有意节食以维持最小的体重。不清楚还有多少人患有暴食症,这些人狂吃,三十分钟内可能要吃掉两三天的饭量,然后通过吃药帮助大便通畅或者催吐的方式来去处多余的食物。年龄也不一定可以保护你。连八岁的小女孩也被诊断患有厌食症。这种疾病造成的死亡大多发生在45岁以上的妇女身上。
 
医生过去认为饮食性疾患只是心理上的问题,但现在他们意识到也有一些生理上的问题。最近在《普通精神病学纪要》发表的研究中,研究者在摆脱暴食症至少一年的妇女中发现非正常水平的复合胺(一种大脑中的神经传递素)。这也许有助于解释为什么药物让许多人停止吞食大量的食物。不幸的是,这些药物对于治疗厌食不起作用。而且它们也不提供简单的一次性治疗。医护工作者必须在如何饮食及如何看待食物方面重新教育他们的病人。
 
怎样判断你所爱的人患有饮食性疾患呢?威奇塔州堪萨斯大学饮食性疾患门诊部主任塔玛拉 派亚说,"暴食症常常会留下证据就好像他们想被抓获一样"。相反,厌食症则更可能会长期地予以否认。
 
Part B
Directions:
 
In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the lish A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices that do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
 
Rain forest structure is distinct from most other forest types because of its many layers of vegetation, referred to as strata. The lowest stratum is the understory, composed of palms, herbaceous plants (such as wild ginger), and tree seedlings and saplings. (41) _____________. Many have deep red coloring on the underside of their leaves to capture some of the scarce light that does manage to reach the forest understory. This red coloring enables understory plants to absorb light of different wavelengths than do the plants with rich, green-foliaged canopy, the umbrella-shaped upper structure of trees. Above the forest floor but below the canopy are one or more midstory strata, made up of woody plants, such as large shrubs and midsized trees.
The overstory is the canopy, in which the tree crowns form a continuous layer that captures the major part of the rainwater and sunlight hitting the forest. The height of the canopy varies from region to region and forest to forest, ranging from 20 to 50 m (65 to 165 ft). (42) ____________. Researchers use hot air balloons, cables, catwalks, towers, sophisticated tree-climbing gear, and even robots to study the millions of plants and animals that make their home high up in the forest canopy. Canopy researchers also use huge cranes that are dropped into the heart of the forest by helicopters. Suspended from the crane's long, movable arm is a large cabin that functions as a mobile treetop laboratory. Moving from tree to tree, forest researchers collect specimens, conduct experiments, and observe life in the canopy frontier.
The highest stratum of the rain forest is made up of the emergent trees, those individuals that stick up above the forest canopy. Emergents, which do not form a continuous layer, are usually the giants of the forest, reaching heights of 35 to 70 m (115 to 230 ft) or more, and trunk sizes of over 2 m (6.6 ft) in diameter. (43) _____________. However, these trees tend to be so large that they collectively account for the vast majority of the woody mass, or biomass, of the forest.
The nicely ordered strata of the rain forest, including the continuous layer of the canopy, are regularly disturbed by naturally occurring events, such as falling trees. Trees in a rain forest canopy are often interconnected by vines, and a falling tree may pull as well as push other trees down with it, producing a domino effect of falling trees. The resulting opening in the forest canopy enables light to pour onto the forest floor. (44) _________________.
Other natural disturbances create even larger openings in the forest canopies. For example, along the hurricane belt in the Caribbean and the typhoon belt along the western Pacific, some forests are substantially altered when high winds and storms blow down hundreds of trees every few decades. (45) _________________. Scientists have found that these natural disturbances and the subsequent forest regeneration are a vital process that leads to healthy and diverse forests.
 
[A] New plants and animals then move into the area and begin to grow.
 
[B] Just 2 percent of the sunlight goes through the many layers of leaves and branches above, so understory plant species have developed special traits to cope with low light levels.
 
[C] On a smaller scale, large mammals, such as elephants, regularly destroy rain forest vegetation in the Congo River Basin in Africa.
 
[D] An understory of shorter trees and a lacework of woody vines, or lianas, produce a forest of such complex internal architecture that many animals, including some sizable ones, rarely or never descend to the ground.
 
[E] Less than one percent of the trees in the forest reside in the canopy and emergent layers.
 
[F] Because more light penetrates the canopy, however, the vegetation of the understory and forest floor is better developed than in the tropics.
 
[G] The rich, green canopy is teeming with life, and forest researchers have developed ingenious methods for accessing this mysterious ecosystem.
 
答案
41.B 42.G 43.E 44.A 45.C
 
总体分析
 
本文是一篇介绍热带雨林植被的科普性文章。
第一段:介绍下层植被的构成与特点以及中层植被的构成。
第二段:介绍最上层的新生树木层的特点。
第三、四段:分析指出自然干扰因素对森林的影响。
 
[A] 新的动植物会搬到这些地方并开始生长。
[B] 下层植被形成了适应低光强的特性。
[C] 有些大的哺乳动物通常会破坏非洲刚果河盆地的热带雨林植被。
[D] 下层植被和藤蔓植物形成了具有相当复杂的内部体系的森林。
[E] 生长在冠层和新生树木层的树较少。
[F] 由于阳光穿透冠层使下层植被和森林地表植被生长得更好。
[G] 研究者已经找到了评估森林冠层的独创的方法。
 
试题精解
 
41.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:段落内一致性原则+上下文的衔接
 
本题空格出现在第一段中。上文提到热带雨林结构中的最低层是下层植被。下文提到,下层植被的植物叶子呈深红色,从而能够获取到达下层植被的少量的光。由此可见,上下文都围绕"下层植被"展开论述。出现关键词"understory"的选项有[B]、[D]和[F]。但是,[D]出现了上下文没有的新信息:"藤蔓植物"。[F]中出现了"冠层(canopy)",但从下文即第一段倒数第二句对canopy一词的定义可知,它应在下文中第一次出现。由此排除[D]和[F]项。[B]强调下层植被适应低光强的特性,其中"低光强"与下文"获取少量的光"、"吸收不同波长的光"等内容相呼应。
 
42.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:段落内一致性原则+上下文的衔接
 
本题空格出现在第二段中。上文介绍了冠层的功能与高度。下文的内容可概括为:研究人员使用各种各样的手段对冠层进行研究。由此可见,上下文都围绕"冠层"展开论述。出现了关键词"canopy"的选项是[E]、[F]和[G]。[E]中出现了上下文没有的新信息:"新生树木层",破坏了段落的一致性,该信息实际上到第三段第二句才首次出现。[F]中出现了逻辑词however,但从内容上看,上文与[F]项并不构成转折关系。而且[F]强调的是冠层与下层植被和森林地表植被的关系,与下文也无法衔接。[G]只涉及"冠层"和"研究者"的内容,与上下文都实现了很好的衔接。
 
43.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:上下文的衔接+词语的呼应
 
本题空格出现在第三段中。上文介绍了在热带雨林最上层的新生树木的特点。下文只有一句话,其中出现了表转折的逻辑词however和代词these trees。从文章结构看,第一至三段已经依次介绍了热带雨林的下层、中层、冠层和最上层,因此本题空格处不应该再回过去只谈论下层或冠层。与上文内容能很好衔接的只有[E],它直接提到了"新生树木层";而且它的内容与下文也能构成转折,即,虽然树较少,但是都很粗壮。
 
44.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:上下文的衔接
 
本题空格出现在第四段末。上文介绍了雨林中连续的的树层可能遭到的破坏及影响。下文即第五段首句提到,其他的自然干扰会造成冠层更大的空隙。由此可知,上下文论述的是自然干扰对树层的影响。根据段落一致原则,空格处应延续上文的内容。[A]和上文能够衔接,其中the area指代上文中the forest floor。[C]有一定的干扰性,其中destroy一词与上文disturb呼应,但是从内容看,"非洲刚果河盆地的热带雨林植被"无法与上文"连续的树层"衔接。[D]虽然重现了上文的词语vines,但其内容与上下文毫无关联。[F]干扰性最大,其中从句"由于更多的阳光穿透森林冠层"与上文衔接非常紧密,但是主句内容与上下文都无法衔接,而且出现了新信息"in the tropics"。
 
45.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:段落内一致性原则+上下文的衔接
 
本题空格出现在第五段中。上文提到对森林造成影响的自然干扰因素并举例说明。下文指出科学家发现自然干扰因素对森林的形成很关键。由此可知,整个第五段围绕"自然干扰因素对森林的影响"展开论述。符合这一主题的只有[C],它衔接上文,继续举例说明自然干扰因素对森林的影响。
 
核心词汇或超纲词汇
 
(1)strata(n.)(stratum的复数形式)层,岩层,地层,社会阶层
 
(2)understory(n.)(=underwood)林下叶层,下层植物
 
(3)foliaged(a.)叶饰的,有很多叶子的
 
(4)canopy(n.)天篷,遮篷,苍穹
 
(5)emergent(a.)新兴的,处于发展初期的 emerge(v.)出现
 
(6)vines (n.) 藤,蔓
 
(7)domino (n.)骨牌,多米诺骨牌
 
(8)regeneration (n.)再生,重建
 
全文翻译
 
热带雨林的结构有别于其它大部分森林类型,原因就在于它有很多的植被层,称之为树层。最低层是下层植被,由棕榈树、草本植物(如野姜花)、树苗和小树构成。仅有2%的阳光可以透过上面众多的叶层和枝层,所以下层植被形成了适应低光强的特性。[B] 许多植物的叶子下侧呈深红色,以便获取能够到达森林下层植被的少量的光。这种红颜色使下层植被比起那些有很多绿色叶子组成的冠层(即,树的伞状上层结构)的植被更能吸收不同波长的光。在森林地表以上冠层以下是一个或多个中间层,由灌木丛和中等大小的树木等木本植物组成。
 
冠层就是森林的上层,其中树冠形成连续不断的层面并获取到达森林的大部分雨水和阳光。冠层的高度因地区和森林的不同而不同,范围在20-50米(65-105英尺)之间。这个浓郁的绿色森林冠层焕发着勃勃生机,森林研究者已经找到了评估这个神秘的生态系统的一些独创的方法。[G] 研究人员使用热气球、电缆、狭窄过道、铁塔、精密的爬树设备,甚至使用机器人来研究数百万种把巢筑在高高的冠层上的动植物。冠层研究者们还使用大型的起重机,通过直升飞机将它们安置在森林的中心地带。悬挂在起重机长长的活动臂上的是一个较大的屋子,作为一个移动的树冠实验室使用。通过在树与树之间移动,研究者们收集样本、进行实验并且在冠层最边缘处观察生命。
 
热带雨林的最上层由新生的树木组成,那些独立的树在冠层上部竖起。这些新生的树木没有形成一个连续层,但它们通常是森林的"巨人",高度可达35-70米(115-230英尺)或者更高,树干的直径也有两米多(6.6英尺)。但是,森林中不到1%的树生长在冠层和新生树木层。[E] 尽管如此,这些树一般都很粗壮,因此构成了森林中大部分的树木或生物物质。
 
雨林中排列有序的树层,包括连续的树冠层,经常遭到诸如树木倒塌这样的自然事件的破坏。雨林冠层的树木通常由藤蔓彼此相连,因此倒下的树木可能把其他的树都拽起和推倒,造成了一种树木倒塌的"多米诺"效应。结果,森林冠层出现的缺口使阳光能够照射到森林地表上来。然后,新的动植物会搬到这些地方并开始生长。[A]
其他的自然干扰造成了森林冠层更大的空隙。例如,沿加勒比海飓风带和沿西太平洋的台风带,每几十年狂风和暴雨就会摧毁成百计的树木,因此一些森林就完全地改变了。在小范围内,一些大的哺乳动物,如大象,通常会破坏非洲刚果河盆地的热带雨林植被。[C]科学家已经发现这些自然干扰和后来的森林再生是一个至关重要的过程,这个过程形成了茂盛的、形形色色的森林。
 
Part C
Directions:
 
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
 
Relativity theory has had a profound influence on our picture of matter by forcing us to modify our concept of a particle in an essential way. (47)In classical physics, the mass of an object had always been associated with an indestructible material substance, with some "stuff" of which all things were thought to be made. Relativity theory showed that mass has nothing to do with any substance, but is a form energy. Energy, however, is a dynamic quantity associated with activity, or with processes.(48)The fact that the mass of a particle is equivalent to a certain of energy means that the particle can no longer be seen as a static object, but has to be conceived as a dynamic pattern, a process involving the energy which manifest itself as the particle's mass.
(49)This new view of particles was initiated by Dirac when he formulated a relativistic equation describing the behavior of electrons. Dirac's theory was not only extremely successful in accounting for the fine details of atomic structure, but also revealed a fundamental symmetry between matter and anti-matter. It predicted the existence of an anti-matter with the same mass as the electron but with an opposite charge. This positively charged particle, now called the positron, was indeed discovered two years after Dirac had predicted it. The symmetry between matter and anti-matter implies that for every particle there exists an antiparticles with equal mass and opposite charge. Pairs of particles and antiparticles can be created if enough energy is available and can be made to turn into pure energy in the reverse process of destruction.(50)These processes of particle creation and destruction had been predicted from Dirac's theory before they were actually discovered in nature, and since then they have been observed millions of times.
 
The creation of material particles from pure energy is certainly the most spectacular effect of relativity theory, and it can only be understood in terms of the view of particles outlined above.(51)Before relativistic particle physics, the constituents of matter had always been considered as being either elementary units which were indestructible and unchangeable, or as composite objects which could be broken up into their constituent parts; and the basic question was whether one could divide matter again and again, or whether one would finally arrive at some smallest indivisible units.
 
答案
47.在古典物理中,某一物体的质量总是与一种不可毁灭的物质相关联。这是一种构成一切物质的"东西"。
 
48.某一粒子的质量相当于一定的能量,这一事实意味着该粒子不再被看作是一个静态的物体,而应该被看成是一种动态的形式,一种与能量表现为粒子质量相关的过程。
 
49.这一新的粒子观是由迪拉克首创的,他列出了描述电子运动行为的相对论方程。
 
50.粒子生成和毁灭的过程在真正被发现之前,迪拉克的理论已经对它们作出了预测,从那时起人们对此做过数百万次的观测。
 
51.在相对论粒子物理学诞生之前,人们一直以为物质的构成成分要么是不可毁灭和不可改变的基本单位,要么是可以分解为其构成部分的合成物。
 
总体分析
 
本文是一篇关于粒子物理理论的文章。
 
第一段:指出相对论改变了我们的粒子概念,从而影响了我们对物质的理解。
第二段:指出这一粒子观点是由迪拉克首创的,他的理论揭示了物质和反物质的基本对称。该理论已经得到了证实。
第三段:纯能量创造物质粒子是相对论最惊人的影响。相对论观点的粒子物理学改变了人们对于物质的看法和理解。
本文是一篇科普性说明文,属于正式文体。考生首要的任务是清楚地分析句子结构,并结合自己的物理常识准确把握生疏词汇,在此基础上完成翻译。本题考核的知识点:(一)被动语态。(二)定语,包括定语从句,分词作定语。(三)状语从句。
 
试题精解
 
47.[精解] 本题考核的知识点是:被动语态、定语从句的译法。
该句的句子主干是:the mass ... had always been associated with an indestructible material substance,其中完成时的被动语态had been associated with,可译成"总是与...相关联"。with some "stuff" of which引导的定语从句修饰indestructible material substance,翻译的时候应该按照汉语习惯,将定语前置,放到所修饰的名词前面。可直译为"所有物质被认为是由这种物质构成的",或意译为"这是构成一切物质的东西"。考生应该注意of 与be made是词组be made of被分隔了的形式,译成"由...构成的"。
词汇:classical"经典的,古典的",在该句中取其第二种含义,译成"古典物理"。
 
48.[精解] 本题考核知识点:同位语、宾语从句、定语从句、现在分词作定语的译法。
 
该句的句子主干是The fact means that...,fact后是that 引导的同位语从句,同位语从句的翻译和定语从句翻译有很多相似之处,如果句子较长,可单独成句,并用"这一事实..."将从句和主语连接在一起,that可以省略不译。Means后是that引导的宾语从句,其中有两个并列的谓语:can no longer be seen as和has to be conceived as,译为"不能再被看成...,而应该被看成..."。a process 是宾语补足语a dynamic pattern的同位语,可以译成并列结构。Involving...部分是现在分词作定语,修饰a process,按照汉语习惯译成"与......有关的过程"。Which...mass是定语从句,修饰the energy,可译成"表现为粒子质量的能量。"
词汇:be equivalent to"等同于,相当于"。 Be conceived as"被看成,被认为"。Dynamic"动力的,动态的"。
 
49.[精解] 本题考核知识点:被动语态、状语从句、现在分词作定语的译法。
 
该句的句子主干是被动语态结构This new view of particles was initiated by Dirac,在翻译被动语态时,通常按照汉语习惯转换成主动语态,但是有时候为了突出施动者,也可译成"由...所做的"。该句中为了突出initiated这一动作是由Dirac发出,应译成"这一观点是由...首创的"。When 引导时间状语从句,可译成"当...的时候",或者为了突出正在发生的事件,译成"那时候..."。describing ... electrons部分是现在分词作定语,修饰relativistic equation,应该按照汉语习惯译成"描述电子运动行为的相对论方程"。
词汇:initiated"开始,发起",句中译为"首创"。Formulated"用公式表达,明确地表达"。relativistic equation"相对论方程"。
 
50.[精解] 本体考核知识点:状语从句、被动语态的译法。
 
该句由两个并列的分句构成:These processes had been predicted和since then they have been observed。前一分句中of particle creation and destruction部分是介词短语作定语,修饰主语processes,应译为"粒子生成和毁灭的过程"。Before...in nature部分为时间状语,翻译时,可按照汉语习惯前置,译成"在...之前"。后一分句中的时间状语since then可译成"在..之后"或"从那时"。此外翻译被动语态结构had been predicted from Dirac's theory时,为了突出施动者,可以按照汉语习惯,译为主动结构。
 
词汇:creation and destruction"生成和毁灭"。predict"预测,预言",文中谈论的是科学现象,应该译为"预测"。in nature"实际上"。
 
51.[精解] 本题考核知识点:完成时的被动语态、状语从句、定语从句、either...or结构的译法。
 
该句的句子主干是:the constituents of matter had always been considered as either...or....。完成时的被动语态had always been considered,可按照汉语习惯译成主动语态,即"人们一直以为"。状语before...可直接翻译,在句中位置不变。Either...or...句型应该译成"或者...或者...",也可以译成"要么...要么..."。本句中两个as...部分均为宾语补足语,与consider一起译成"看成是..."。两个which引导定语从句,修饰两个宾语补足语,翻译时采用前置法将定语提前。
 
词汇:relativistic particle physics"相对粒子物理学",constituents of matter"物质构成成分", composite objects"合成物"。
 
全文翻译
 
相对论迫使我们从本质上改变了粒子概念,从而深深地影响了我们对物质的理解。在古典物理中,某一物体的质量总是与一种不可毁灭的物质相关联。这是一种构成一切物质的"东西"。相对论表明,质量与任何物质都毫无关系,它只是一种能量形式。而能量则是与运动或过程联系在一起的动态的量。某一粒子的质量相当于一定的能量,这一事实意味着该粒子不能再被看作是一个静态的物体,而应该被看成是一种动态的形式,一种与能量表现为粒子质量相关的过程。
 
这一新的粒子观是由迪拉克首创的,他列出了描述电子运动行为的相对论方程。迪拉克理论的极大成功不仅是因为证明了原子结构的微细节,还因为它揭示了物质与反物质的基本对称。这一理论预测了反物质的存在,反物质与电子质量相同,电荷相反。迪拉克做出预测两年后,就有人真正发现这种释放正电的粒子,也就是现在的正电子。物质和反物质的对称显示了每个粒子都存在着一个质量相同但电荷相反的反粒子。如果有足够的能量,就能创造出粒子和反粒子的粒子对,并在其逆向破坏的过程中转化成纯能量。粒子生成和毁灭的过程在真正被发现之前,迪拉克的理论已经对它们作出了预测,从那时起人们对此做过数百万次的观测。
 
纯能量创造物质粒子无疑是相对论产生的最惊人的影响,也只有通过上述粒子观才能理解。在相对粒子物理学诞生之前,人们一直以为物质的构成成分要么是不可毁灭和改变的基本单位,要么是可以分解为其构成部分的合成物。基本的问题是:人们是否可以一次又一次地分裂物质,或者说人们是否可以最终达到一些最小的不可分割的单位。
 
Section Ⅲ Writing
 
Part A
 
51. Directions:
Suppose you are going to graduate. You want to hold a yard sale before you leave. Write a poster to advertise your sale, providing the following information:
1) time and place of the sale,
2) items for sale, and
3) ways to contact you.
You should write about 100 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name. Use "Li Ming" instead. (10 points)
 
 一、审题与谋篇
 
本题要求写一个海报。海报是人们日常生活中极为常见的一种招贴形式,多用于电影、戏曲、比赛、文艺演出等活动。海报中通常要写清楚活动的性质、主办单位、时间、地点等内容。海报的语言要求简明扼要,形式要做到新颖美观。海报的格式,通常有三部分组成,即标题、正文与落款。海报的标题对于海报的宣传极为重要。因此标题的撰写要做到简洁明快,新颖醒目,抓住读者的注意力,海报的标题形式通常有两种:一是直接使用"海报"(Poster)一词;另一种则是根据海报的内容,撰写标题。海报正文是海报的核心部分,它是对海报标题的具体描述。语言要求形象生动,简明扼要。做到既有鼓动性,又不夸大其辞。正文的常见表现形式有:简介说明式,文学描述式,美术设计式。由于考试时间的限制,只有简介说明式可能在考试中出现,应试时把题目要求的内容写清楚即可。
 
指导语中给出的情景是离校前的一次庭院销售(注:美国人习惯在自家出售旧货故称庭院销售),要求海报的内容应包括:(1)销售的时间、地点;(2)所售物品;(3)你的联系方式。
 
二、 参考范文
 
Yard Sale
As graduation is approaching, we English major seniors are holding a yard sale on campus. Welcome to participate and choose the items you need.
Time: June 1-2, from 10:00 am to 17:00 pm
Place: In front of the second dining hall
Items for sale: All types of books (especially in the subject of English language and literature), reading lamps, fans, tables, etc., in addition to other everyday necessities.
Contact: For detailed information, contact Li Ming at 01088826667.
We have the largest collection and the lowest prices. Don't miss the chance to be there.
Senior Students of English Department
 
Part B
52. Directions:
Write an essay with the title "Reading Books in Printed Form or on Computer" in which you should
1) analyze the strong points and weak points of each one, and
2) tell your own preference and your reasons.
You should write 160-200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.(20 points)
 
一、审题与谋篇
 
本题是一篇标题加提纲式作文。文章的主题和基本框架在指导语中给出了要求。文章要求以"Reading Books in Printed Form or on Computer(读印刷书还是电子书)"为题(同时也是文章的主题),(一)分析印刷书和电子书的优缺点;(二)说明你自己的喜好及其原因。
 
二、参考范文
 
Reading Books in Printed Form or on Computer
The popularization of computer has made it possible to read books on computer. With it, there is much discussion about whether e-books will replace traditional print-on-paper books.
Some people say they like only e-books, which are quicker and more convenient to get and use. To get a needed book, one has to spend much time or money in searching for or buying it in bookstores, but one can just type in the title, author or other related information of the book to find it in minutes on internet. Sometimes one can even read the full content of a digitized book free of charge or instantly discuss about a book in an online forum. Moreover, a lot of information of books can be stored in a small compact disc, which is easy to take.
Other people, however, think printed books are still necessary. In the first place, too much time in front of the computer can cause eyestrain or increase radiation risks. Second, a printed book can be read at your convenience. One can read in bed before sleep or during a boring journey, without fussing with a computer.
In sum, since e-books and printed books have their respective advantages and can complement each other, I would like to combine the two ways to meet different needs. For quick reference, a digitized book will probably be useful. To appreciate a poem or a novel, I prefer the traditional way of reading on printed books.

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